What is canine coronavirus?- Know Everything

canine coronavirus

Canine Coronavirus is a single win RNA virus with 6 to 7 polypeptides, 4 of which are glycopeptides and do not contain RNA polymerase and neuraminidase. So, Canine coronavirus (CCV) is a source of viral infectious diseases that seriously endangers the canine industry, economic animal breeding, and wildlife protection. But, Gastrointestinal inflammation can occur in dogs to varying degrees and is characterized by frequent vomiting, diarrhea, depression, and anorexia. The disease can occur all year round and frequently occurs in winter.

Also, The diseased dog is the leading infectious agent. Dogs can be transmitted through the respiratory tract, digestive tract, feces, and pollutants. Once the disease occurs, it is difficult for a littermate and a roommate to control the infection. Puppies have a higher mortality rate.

Canine Coronal Virus (Caninecoronavi, l ~ S, CCV) belongs to the Order of NDV.

(Nidovirales), Coronaviridae, Coronavirus, Coronavirus I group. CCV was first isolated from diarrhea German military dogs by Binn et al… Viral particles were 60-200 nm in diameter and spherical in shape, and had capsules. The nucleocapsid is filamentous—Helix symmetry, like other enveloped viruses. CCV is sensitive to heat, fatty solvents, non-ionic detergents, formaldehyde, and oxidants. It is stable to acids and can be stored for several years at -70 ° C or lyophilized at 4 ° C. CCV can proliferate in a variety of canine and feline cell lines, such as primary canine kidney cells, canine thymus, and dermal fibromatosis cells (A72), and feline lung cells (CRFK).

The canine Coronavirus (CCV) genome is a 28-32 kb single-stranded positive-stranded RNA. The gene is transcribed in the presence of the virus’s own RNA polymerase using the first-guide transcription mechanism.

Membrane protein that plays a vital role in budding, assembly, and maturation; fibrillin, which can stimulate the body to produce neutralizing antibodies, and is mutated. In addition, the S protein also determines the virus serotype and infectivity.

Recognizes and interacts with viral host cell receptors to determine the host range of viral infections, small membrane proteins (E), and other viral proteins involved in virus assembly. CCV also recognizes and interacts with feline aminopeptidase.

Disease

The disease frequently occurs in the cold winter and spreads rapidly, often outbreaks within a few days; Dogs of other ages. Puppies have higher morbidity and mortality than adult dogs. Puppy symptoms worsen, Vomiting, and diarrhea are the main symptoms of the disease, and adult dogs have mild symptoms.

The clinical symptoms and epidemiology of this disease are similar to those of rotavirus infection, and often mixed with rotavirus, canine parvovirus, and other conditions, making diagnosis more difficult. From the animal regression test, clinical symptoms appeared one day after the virus inoculation. All challenge dogs had bowel and mesenteric lymph node lesions after culling. But one dog had no obvious observable symptoms. The reason may be that the virus needs to be mixed with bacteria to show pronounced clinical signs.

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Canine Coronavirus

So, Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, anorexia, and recurrence 14 to 21 days after clinical symptoms disappear, is a significant infectious disease that currently harms the dog industry. But, The route of infection is the digestive tract, which is mainly caused by contact with feces and pollutants discharged from sick dogs.

The virus survives in the feces for 6-9 days, and the pollutants can remain infectious for several days in the water. Canine Coronavirus can react with the antisera of feline contagious peritonitis virus and porcine infectious gastroenteritis virus, indicating that the three may be a group of viruses. The virus is sensitive to heat, ultraviolet rays, and general chemicals.

Symptom

The incubation period is 1 to 8 days. The disease spreads rapidly and can apply to the entire population within a few days. Generally, it manifests drowsiness, weakness, and repeated Vomiting, and then the stool changes from paste-like, semi-mushy to watery, orange or green, with mucus or blood, fever or no fever, white blood cells decrease rapid dehydration and death. As we get older, mortality rates fall. Some cases do not show clinical symptoms.

Treatment

Use symptomatic therapy, such as antiemetic, antidiarrheal, fluid replacement, antibiotics to prevent secondary infection, fast food, and water, Coronavirus is a gastrointestinal disease, you must fast food and water, if there are food and water in the stomach, the bacteria will be there and dilute Frequently, I took it to a “regular veterinary station” to infuse anti-inflammatory and nutrient solutions, and then sera, and usually a seven-day course of treatment can be restored. So, The rate of coronary cure is about 95% (said by the veterinary doctor). But, The disease has no preventive effect. Measures to reduce the incidence are to strengthen feeding management and strictly implement veterinary health measures.

Cat detection

Introduction

So, Feline coronavirus FeCV (Feline enteric Coronavirus) is a highly infectious virus and prefers to occur in a large number and variety of domestic cats. FCV poses great danger to cats, and FeCV-positive is often considered a prelude to FIP. The most fundamental way to control cat FIP ​​is to prevent and control FCV. FCV is one of the extensive feline coronaviruses (Feline Coronavirus (FCoV)).

The presence of FeCV antibodies only indicates the possibility of the presence of FeCV virus and / or infection with FIP. A positive result for FeCV antibodies does not necessarily mean that the cat has FeCV virus and / or FIP infection, and should be judged in conjunction with other clinical symptoms. However, negative results may indicate the absence of FeCV virus and / or infection with FIP.

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Detection principle

If FCoV antibodies are present in the cat sample, the antibodies will bind to the antigen in the well and then to the protein A enzyme label. A clear blue color indicates the presence of FCoV antibodies, and no color change indicates no FCoV antibodies.

But, The kit has high specificity and sensitivity, simple operation, and the results can be known within 30 minutes. Also, The kit includes positive quality control and negative quality control. So, You can accurately determine the presence of FCoV antibodies in the sample by comparing the color with the negative quality control with the naked eye.

sample

1ul serum or plasma is required, only cat samples can be tested. Severe erythrocyte lysis or lipolysis can produce interfering colors, so try to get better quality samples.
Prepare washing liquid
Allow the wash concentrate to reach room temperature and mix gently by inversion.

Result

a. The validity of the test must be: the liquid in the positive control well is clear blue, while the liquid in the negative control well remains clear.
c. If there is no color change in the well of the sample, it means that there is no FIP infection.

 

Kit components

Coated microplates 8×12 wells
Positive Quality Control Serum 1.5ml
Negative quality control serum 7.0ml
Protein A HRP marker 5.0ml
TMB 7.0ml
Substrate buffer 7.0ml
Concentrated washing solution 100.0ml

Precautions

Preservation and stability
Store the kit and diluted washing solution at 2-7 ° C. Do not freeze. As long as the reagents are stable under proper storage conditions.

Q: Where did CRCoV happen?

1 This virus usually infects dogs in Britain, Ireland, Greece, Italy and Japan. 3-6 Recent research indicates that CRCoV also exists in the United States. But, In Canada and Canada, about 50% of tested dogs have antibodies to the virus, suggesting that they have been infected in the past.

Q: How do I manage CRCoV infection?

A: Important management strategies to reduce the spread of CRCoV infection include isolating sick and bare dogs, biosecurity measures (for example, changing clothes and washing hands after handling sick dogs), and effective hygiene measures. The length of CRCoV retention in the environment is unknown, but may be at least a few hours. The disinfected surface should be completely dry, as moisture will promote the survival of the virus.

Q: How do I manage Canine Coronavirus infection?

A: Important management strategies to reduce the spread of CRCoV infection include isolating sick and bare dogs, biosecurity measures (for example, changing clothes and washing hands after handling sick dogs), and effective hygiene measures. The length of CRCoV retention in the environment is unknown, but may be at least a few hours. The disinfected surface should be completely dry, as moisture will promote the survival of the virus.

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