We are living in a technologically advanced world. Each mechanical function is getting connected to automation. The term automation is movable when computerized software is linking. The mechanism of a computer is the parallel relation between hardware and software. Software is consisting of complex code, and computer programmers use them to create numerous features of the software.
Some of the primary program languages are Java, C, C++, Python, etc. Java language handy due to the elements. One of the remarkable and critical features is an abstraction. Abstraction in Java looks the things extremely simple. In the Java program, to create any application requires coding. But in the case of using it is ultimately meaningless to understand the process underline the execution. So, that abstraction in Java introduced to keep the overall interface understandable.
Want to learn about abstraction in Java? How does it work? Then keep your eye open because of the abstraction relevant information in the below section.
Abstraction helps move the focus from the concrete implementation’s internal details to the type and its behavior. It is all about hiding details about the data, its internal representation, and its application. In other words, an abstraction denotes the essential properties of an object for better execution. It is one of the fundamental ways to handle complexity. The users introduced to the function, which gives them a clear concept.
For example- Suppose you want to call your friend. He has two different mobiles, one is the iPhone, and the other is Samsung. The devices have a completely different operating system. But the tools aim to call others. When you are calling your friend, you will not think about the phone. Here comes the term abstraction; it focuses one the process, not the hidden unimportant matters to the users.
Abstraction in Java
Abstraction emphasis the outcome, not the inner mechanism. In the case of data, abstraction it reflects in the valuable parts that needed for the exposer. By avoiding the irrelevant information of the process, data abstraction creates a more meaningful and straightforward output. Due to the process, it will classify the object in various groups. For example- If you are working one computer and running Java-based software such as gaming or scientific application.
As a user, you will enjoy the game or analyze the experimental data without any complex interface because abstraction in Java is suppressing the complicated and unnecessary features. The system is basically for users so that they can access complexity free interface. Abstraction also helps to make the software maintainable and secure, and it provides an ability to change the implementation without any client.
Ways to Achieve of Abstraction in Java
The abstraction achieved by abstract class and interface. We will discuss this in detail. The idea is one of the object-oriented programs in practice. The process of Abstraction in Java can be achieved by the following two methods, as mentioned below:
- Implementing an Abstract Class
- Implementing an Interface.
Abstract class act as a fundamental component in the abstraction of Java. In Java, the abstract class act as a limit line between the application method and its functionality. The feature uses to exchange the activity between the concrete class members and the abstract class method. Abstract classes consider those classes that hide the implementation details from the user.
Besides, show the only method functionality. They declare using the keyword abstract, and these methods can include abstract as well as non-abstract methods. Classes that use to instantiate objects are called a concrete type. For example- we could derive concert classes circle, square, and triangle from abstract superclass two-dimensional shape. The other related object-oriented concept is encapsulation, which uses to abstract the complexities and the internal implementation of a class.
Importance of abstract classes in Java
We need abstract classes for Java for several reasons. Let’s start by mentioning the reasons.
- Default Functionality- Abstract classes designed to provide default functionality of the different methods for all the subclasses.
- Template- Abstract classes provide a temple for future specific classes.
- Code Reusability- These allow code reusability.
- Separate Method Definition- Abstract classes sperate the method definition from the inherited sub-class.
- Loose Coupling- Abstract classes help the users to achieve loose coupling between the class members and class methods.
- Dynamic Method Resolution- The method is functional during run time.
Rules for Abstract Classes in Java
To use the abstract classes in Java, we will suppose to follow the rules define as below-
- Firstly, if any project or program always remembers abstract class cannot instantiate.
- An abstract class can allow accommodating the final methods.
- It must always be declared using the abstract keyword.
- An abstract class can have theoretical and non-abstract methods.
- Last by not the is that it can have constructors and static methods.
Abstract methods do not provide the implementation. A class that contains any theoretical approaches must be declared as an abstract class even if the category includes concrete (non-concrete) methods. Each concrete subclass of an abstract superclass also must provide a practical implementation of the superclass’s abstract methods.
Constructors and static methods cannot be declared abstract. Constructors are not inherited, so an abstract constructor could never implement. Simply, abstract subclasses cannot override a static method, so an abstract static method could never achieve.
In simple words, an interface defined as which shares boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system to exchange information. In the case of computers, it separates two systems and accesses the border, which helps in data exchange. For example,- The exchange can be between software, computer hardware, and peripheral devices. It gives the format a flexible position to work. The interface is a unique feature that directly connects with the abstraction process.
Importance of interface in Java
Java supports inheritance, but when it comes to multiple estates, Java cannot support it. It answers facing ambiguate between parent classes and phase provided where result. We need a Java interface to overcome the problem of multiple inheritances. For example- A airplane that considers both the properties of carrying huge cargo and passengers. Let’s assume that we have tow planes.
One is capable of carrying only passengers, and the other one is capable only of carrying cargo. Now we need to take both passengers and cargo in a single plane, which seems to be impossible based on how the Java works. AS it is, it cannot access the properties of two different parent classes at the same time.
But you can make it possible by making Java feel that it is inheriting one place and implementing the methods in the other. The interface is a system that can do multiple tasks at the same time without interfering with the component of one another.
Advantage of interface
- You can achieve multiple inheritances in Java through the interface.
- It can easily break up complexity and enable explicit dependencies between the object.
- Besides, it is achievable to win loosely coupled applications through an interface.
Disadvantage of interface
- Java interfaces make the application slower when compared to the competitor like Python. Python support multiple inheritances.
- An interface included in an application, and it might be used once in a while or multiple times at a larger scale.
Interface relates to abstraction.
The significant key advantage of interface is an abstraction. Because none of the methods declare an interface has a body. It relates to the multiple options in the abstraction process.
Implementing an Interface
- The keyword Implement is used in a class to implement the method of an interface.
- The method in an interface that provided with an access modifier as the public. The methods declared in an interface also consider as public.
- The class must implement all the methods in an interface, or else it must declare as an abstract class.
Access modifiers in an Interface
- Considering the interface, it is not private and secure.
- By default, all interface methods are abstract and public.
- Variable declared they are public and static.
- At the time of declaration, variables must install. If not, the compiler will show an error.
Extending an Interface
- An interface can extend any interface but cannot implement it.
- A class can implement any number of interfaces.
- Having the same name, the class will not implement two interfaces.
- The interface name can solve the variable name conflicts.
Difference between class and interface
- Multiple inheritances- Interface is designed to provide various legacy where, on the other hand, classes cannot support numerous estates.
- Data members- Interface does not have data members; all include just methods, which decreases the probability of confusion during the implementation process. On the other hand, classes include data members, which means that the user must be careful while using the data members to avoid ambiguity.
- Constructors- Interface does not have constructors, while classes take up the advantage by including them. They will help them to set the values to the numbers of an object.
- Complete and Incomplete members- Interfaces comprises only matters, and it includes the incomplete member. Classes include both data members (complete members) and case know as a signature member.
- Access modifiers- Interface does not have access modifiers by default public modifiers. But classes access to public modifiers.
Advantage of Abstraction in Java
- The technique allows us to concentrate on vital information and to cull down the expanded version.
- It helps the user to understand better due to simplification.
- Maximize the protection of software by providing essential information.
- Copying the same code over and over is eliminated and increasing reliability.
Comparison between abstract class and interface
- An abstract class can include abstract as well as non-abstract methods. But interface can have an only abstract way.
- Non-final variables are embedded in the abstract class, while the interface has only the final variable.
- The abstract class consists of static, non-static, final, and non-final variables. On the other hand, the interface has static and final variables only.
- Java classes and the interface can convert into abstract classes, but interface extends only an interface.
- In abstract class, members remain private and protected at the same time. However, the default settings of an interface are public.
Having a series of applications in Java is a place of heaven for software developers. The requests for better service. All focus on the users, and they’re comfortless. Developers always try to hide the complicated version of data for the betterment of the users. There are lots of irrelevant garbage information that needs not shown. It concentrates on legit and valuable information, and any platform can turn into an enjoyable workplace. For fulfilling this purpose, abstraction is there in Java.
To understand abstraction, you have to know about abstract and interface. These two are the key sources to achieve abstraction. Within multiple abstract classes are there to split the functional activities. The factors are both individually, and parallel discusses for fruitful realization. It does not matter if you are a programmer or non-technical person; these are the basic to learn.
So, in conclusion, the process abstraction emphasis on realistic and simple objective things. The things that directly connected with real-time use. However, it always maintains a rule that coverup all the unnecessary junk input, which is not mandatory in the display. From your point of curiosity, learn abstraction to know the truth.